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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 11319-11346; doi:10.3390/ijms140611319
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Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling

1
, 1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 18 April 2013; in revised form: 12 May 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology)
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Abstract: Are there common pathways underlying the broad spectrum of tissue pathologies that develop upon injuries and from subsequent tissue remodeling? Here, we explain the pathophysiological impact of a set of evolutionary conserved danger control programs for tissue pathology. These programs date back to the survival benefits of the first multicellular organisms upon traumatic injuries by launching a series of danger control responses, i.e., 1. Haemostasis, or clotting to control bleeding; 2. Host defense, to control pathogen entry and spreading; 3. Re-epithelialisation, to recover barrier functions; and 4. Mesenchymal, to repair to regain tissue stability. Taking kidney pathology as an example, we discuss how clotting, inflammation, epithelial healing, and fibrosis/sclerosis determine the spectrum of kidney pathology, especially when they are insufficiently activated or present in an overshooting and deregulated manner. Understanding the evolutionary benefits of these response programs may refine the search for novel therapeutic targets to limit organ dysfunction in acute injuries and in progressive chronic tissue remodeling
Keywords: regeneration; fibrosis; coagulation; stem cells; inflammation; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; healing; repair regeneration; fibrosis; coagulation; stem cells; inflammation; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; healing; repair
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hagemann, J.H.; Haegele, H.; Müller, S.; Anders, H.-J. Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11319-11346.

AMA Style

Hagemann JH, Haegele H, Müller S, Anders H-J. Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11319-11346.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hagemann, Jan H.; Haegele, Holger; Müller, Susanna; Anders, Hans-Joachim. 2013. "Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11319-11346.



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