Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 11319-11346; doi:10.3390/ijms140611319
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Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling

1 Nephrologisches Zentrum, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV der Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, München 80336, Germany 2 Pathologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, München 80336, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2013; in revised form: 12 May 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
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Abstract: Are there common pathways underlying the broad spectrum of tissue pathologies that develop upon injuries and from subsequent tissue remodeling? Here, we explain the pathophysiological impact of a set of evolutionary conserved danger control programs for tissue pathology. These programs date back to the survival benefits of the first multicellular organisms upon traumatic injuries by launching a series of danger control responses, i.e., 1. Haemostasis, or clotting to control bleeding; 2. Host defense, to control pathogen entry and spreading; 3. Re-epithelialisation, to recover barrier functions; and 4. Mesenchymal, to repair to regain tissue stability. Taking kidney pathology as an example, we discuss how clotting, inflammation, epithelial healing, and fibrosis/sclerosis determine the spectrum of kidney pathology, especially when they are insufficiently activated or present in an overshooting and deregulated manner. Understanding the evolutionary benefits of these response programs may refine the search for novel therapeutic targets to limit organ dysfunction in acute injuries and in progressive chronic tissue remodeling
Keywords: regeneration; fibrosis; coagulation; stem cells; inflammation; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; healing; repair

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hagemann, J.H.; Haegele, H.; Müller, S.; Anders, H.-J. Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11319-11346.

AMA Style

Hagemann JH, Haegele H, Müller S, Anders H-J. Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11319-11346.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hagemann, Jan H.; Haegele, Holger; Müller, Susanna; Anders, Hans-Joachim. 2013. "Danger Control Programs Cause Tissue Injury and Remodeling." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11319-11346.

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