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Astrocytic Vesicle Mobility in Health and Disease
Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Celica Biomedical Center, Tehnološki park 24, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2013; in revised form: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 27 May 2013
Abstract: Astrocytes are no longer considered subservient to neurons, and are, instead, now understood to play an active role in brain signaling. The intercellular communication of astrocytes with neurons and other non-neuronal cells involves the exchange of molecules by exocytotic and endocytotic processes through the trafficking of intracellular vesicles. Recent studies of single vesicle mobility in astrocytes have prompted new views of how astrocytes contribute to information processing in nervous tissue. Here, we review the trafficking of several types of membrane-bound vesicles that are specifically involved in the processes of (i) intercellular communication by gliotransmitters (glutamate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, atrial natriuretic peptide), (ii) plasma membrane exchange of transporters and receptors (EAAT2, MHC-II), and (iii) the involvement of vesicle mobility carrying aquaporins (AQP4) in water homeostasis. The properties of vesicle traffic in astrocytes are discussed in respect to networking with neighboring cells in physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and states in which astrocytes contribute to neuroinflammatory conditions.
Keywords: astrocyte; glia; vesicle; trafficking; gliotransmitter; antigen presentation; neuroinflammation; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; multiple sclerosis
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Potokar, M.; Vardjan, N.; Stenovec, M.; Gabrijel, M.; Trkov, S.; Jorgačevski, J.; Kreft, M.; Zorec, R. Astrocytic Vesicle Mobility in Health and Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11238-11258.
Potokar M, Vardjan N, Stenovec M, Gabrijel M, Trkov S, Jorgačevski J, Kreft M, Zorec R. Astrocytic Vesicle Mobility in Health and Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11238-11258.
Potokar, Maja; Vardjan, Nina; Stenovec, Matjaž; Gabrijel, Mateja; Trkov, Saša; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Zorec, Robert. 2013. "Astrocytic Vesicle Mobility in Health and Disease." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11238-11258.