Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 9643-9684; doi:10.3390/ijms14059643

Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants

1,* email, 2,3email, 2email, 4email and 2,* email
Received: 1 February 2013; in revised form: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
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Abstract: High temperature (HT) stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. HT-induced gene expression and metabolite synthesis also substantially improve tolerance. The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. This article reviews the recent findings on responses, adaptation, and tolerance to HT at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels and describes various approaches being taken to enhance thermotolerance in plants.
Keywords: abiotic stress; antioxidant defense; climate change; high temperature; heat shock proteins; oxidative stress; plant omics; stress signaling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasanuzzaman, M.; Nahar, K.; Alam, M.M.; Roychowdhury, R.; Fujita, M. Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 9643-9684.

AMA Style

Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Roychowdhury R, Fujita M. Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(5):9643-9684.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md. M.; Roychowdhury, Rajib; Fujita, Masayuki. 2013. "Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 5: 9643-9684.

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