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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 9267-9285; doi:10.3390/ijms14059267
Article

Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

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1 School of Agricultural Science and Tasmanian Institute for Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 54, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia 2 University Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Colima, 28045 Colima, Mexico 3 School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Richmond, NSW 2753, Australia 4 College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China 5 Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Allé 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2013 / Revised: 13 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
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Abstract

Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.
Keywords: sodium exclusion; vacuolar sequestration; potassium retention; mesophyll; cytosol; H+-ATPase; SOS1 exchanger sodium exclusion; vacuolar sequestration; potassium retention; mesophyll; cytosol; H+-ATPase; SOS1 exchanger
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bonales-Alatorre, E.; Pottosin, I.; Shabala, L.; Chen, Z.-H.; Zeng, F.; Jacobsen, S.-E.; Shabala, S. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 9267-9285.

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