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Porous Polyimide Membranes Prepared by Wet Phase Inversion for Use in Low Dielectric Applications
Energy Institute, Energy and Mineral Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801, USA
Future Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791, South Korea
Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2012; in revised form: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
Abstract: A wet phase inversion process of polyamic acid (PAA) allowed fabrication of a porous membrane of polyimide (PI) with the combination of a low dielectric constant (1.7) and reasonable mechanical properties (Tensile strain: 8.04%, toughness: 3.4 MJ/m3, tensile stress: 39.17 MPa, and young modulus: 1.13 GPa), with further thermal imidization process of PAA. PAA was simply synthesized from purified pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4-oxydianiline (ODA) in two different reaction solvents such as γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), which produce Mw/PDI of 630,000/1.45 and 280,000/2.0, respectively. The porous PAA membrane was fabricated by the wet phase inversion process based on a solvent/non-solvent system via tailored composition between GBL and NMP. The porosity of PI, indicative of a low electric constant, decreased with increasing concentration of GBL, which was caused by sponge-like formation. However, due to interplay between the low electric constant (structural formation) and the mechanical properties, GBL was employed for further exploration, using toluene and acetone vs. DI-water as a coagulation media. Non-solvents influenced determination of the PAA membrane size and porosity. With this approach, insight into the interplay between dielectric properties and mechanical properties will inform a wide range of potential low-k material applications.
Keywords: low K material; porous polyimide; poly amic acid; wet phase inversion
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Kim, S.; Jang, K.-S.; Choi, H.-D.; Choi, S.-H.; Kwon, S.-J.; Kim, I.-D.; Lim, J.A.; Hong, J.-M. Porous Polyimide Membranes Prepared by Wet Phase Inversion for Use in Low Dielectric Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8698-8707.
Kim S, Jang K-S, Choi H-D, Choi S-H, Kwon S-J, Kim I-D, Lim JA, Hong J-M. Porous Polyimide Membranes Prepared by Wet Phase Inversion for Use in Low Dielectric Applications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(5):8698-8707.
Kim, Soohyun; Jang, Keon-Soo; Choi, Hee-Dok; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kwon, Seong-Ji; Kim, Il-Doo; Lim, Jung A.; Hong, Jae-Min. 2013. "Porous Polyimide Membranes Prepared by Wet Phase Inversion for Use in Low Dielectric Applications." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 5: 8698-8707.