Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8148-8163; doi:10.3390/ijms14048148
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Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques

1 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232, Australia 2 Research School of Biological Sciences, the Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia 3 Department of Biology, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA 4 School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2012; in revised form: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
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Abstract: Scattering techniques have played a key role in our understanding of the structure and function of phospholipid membranes. These techniques have been applied widely to study how different molecules (e.g., cholesterol) can affect phospholipid membrane structure. However, there has been much less attention paid to the effects of molecules that remain in the aqueous phase. One important example is the role played by small solutes, particularly sugars, in protecting phospholipid membranes during drying or slow freezing. In this paper, we present new results and a general methodology, which illustrate how contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (small angle (SAXS) and wide angle (WAXS)) can be used to quantitatively understand the interactions between solutes and phospholipids. Specifically, we show the assignment of lipid phases with synchrotron SAXS and explain how SANS reveals the exclusion of sugars from the aqueous region in the particular example of hexagonal II phases formed by phospholipids.
Keywords: cryobiology; anhydrobiology; X-ray scattering; contrast variation small angle neutron scattering; membranes; phospholipids; sugars

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garvey, C.J.; Lenné, T.; Koster, K.L.; Kent, B.; Bryant, G. Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8148-8163.

AMA Style

Garvey CJ, Lenné T, Koster KL, Kent B, Bryant G. Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):8148-8163.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garvey, Christopher J.; Lenné, Thomas; Koster, Karen L.; Kent, Ben; Bryant, Gary. 2013. "Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 8148-8163.

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