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Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232, Australia
Research School of Biological Sciences, the Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Department of Biology, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2012; in revised form: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
Abstract: Scattering techniques have played a key role in our understanding of the structure and function of phospholipid membranes. These techniques have been applied widely to study how different molecules (e.g., cholesterol) can affect phospholipid membrane structure. However, there has been much less attention paid to the effects of molecules that remain in the aqueous phase. One important example is the role played by small solutes, particularly sugars, in protecting phospholipid membranes during drying or slow freezing. In this paper, we present new results and a general methodology, which illustrate how contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (small angle (SAXS) and wide angle (WAXS)) can be used to quantitatively understand the interactions between solutes and phospholipids. Specifically, we show the assignment of lipid phases with synchrotron SAXS and explain how SANS reveals the exclusion of sugars from the aqueous region in the particular example of hexagonal II phases formed by phospholipids.
Keywords: cryobiology; anhydrobiology; X-ray scattering; contrast variation small angle neutron scattering; membranes; phospholipids; sugars
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MDPI and ACS Style
Garvey, C.J.; Lenné, T.; Koster, K.L.; Kent, B.; Bryant, G. Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 8148-8163.
Garvey CJ, Lenné T, Koster KL, Kent B, Bryant G. Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):8148-8163.
Garvey, Christopher J.; Lenné, Thomas; Koster, Karen L.; Kent, Ben; Bryant, Gary. 2013. "Phospholipid Membrane Protection by Sugar Molecules during Dehydration—Insights into Molecular Mechanisms Using Scattering Techniques." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 8148-8163.