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Skeletal Muscle Function during Exercise—Fine-Tuning of Diverse Subsystems by Nitric Oxide
Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933 Cologne, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013; in revised form: 17 March 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Abstract: Skeletal muscle is responsible for altered acute and chronic workload as induced by exercise. Skeletal muscle adaptations range from immediate change of contractility to structural adaptation to adjust the demanded performance capacities. These processes are regulated by mechanically and metabolically induced signaling pathways, which are more or less involved in all of these regulations. Nitric oxide is one of the central signaling molecules involved in functional and structural adaption in different cell types. It is mainly produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and by non-enzymatic pathways also in skeletal muscle. The relevance of a NOS-dependent NO signaling in skeletal muscle is underlined by the differential subcellular expression of NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3, and the alteration of NO production provoked by changes of workload. In skeletal muscle, a variety of highly relevant tasks to maintain skeletal muscle integrity and proper signaling mechanisms during adaptation processes towards mechanical and metabolic stimulations are taken over by NO signaling. The NO signaling can be mediated by cGMP-dependent and -independent signaling, such as S-nitrosylation-dependent modulation of effector molecules involved in contractile and metabolic adaptation to exercise. In this review, we describe the most recent findings of NO signaling in skeletal muscle with a special emphasis on exercise conditions. However, to gain a more detailed understanding of the complex role of NO signaling for functional adaptation of skeletal muscle (during exercise), additional sophisticated studies are needed to provide deeper insights into NO-mediated signaling and the role of non-enzymatic-derived NO in skeletal muscle physiology.
Keywords: skeletal muscle; nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthase; cGMP; S-nitrosylation; exercise; signaling
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MDPI and ACS Style
Suhr, F.; Gehlert, S.; Grau, M.; Bloch, W. Skeletal Muscle Function during Exercise—Fine-Tuning of Diverse Subsystems by Nitric Oxide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 7109-7139.
Suhr F, Gehlert S, Grau M, Bloch W. Skeletal Muscle Function during Exercise—Fine-Tuning of Diverse Subsystems by Nitric Oxide. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):7109-7139.
Suhr, Frank; Gehlert, Sebastian; Grau, Marijke; Bloch, Wilhelm. 2013. "Skeletal Muscle Function during Exercise—Fine-Tuning of Diverse Subsystems by Nitric Oxide." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 7109-7139.