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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 7061-7088; doi:10.3390/ijms14047061

Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

3,*  and 1,8,*
1 Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China 2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 3 Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA 4 Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2M9, Canada 5 Institute of Plant Protection, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 610066, Sichuan, China 6 Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel 7 College of Plant Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China 8 Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 23 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity.
Keywords: T. durum; landrace; cultivars; molecular marker; SNP; genetic structure T. durum; landrace; cultivars; molecular marker; SNP; genetic structure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ren, J.; Sun, D.; Chen, L.; You, F.M.; Wang, J.; Peng, Y.; Nevo, E.; Sun, D.; Luo, M.-C.; Peng, J. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 7061-7088.

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