Next Article in Journal
Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: A Review of Pathogenesis
Next Article in Special Issue
Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health
Previous Article in Journal
Cold Signaling and Cold Response in Plants
Previous Article in Special Issue
Wnt Secretion and Gradient Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 5338-5366; doi:10.3390/ijms14035338
Review

Exosomes as Intercellular Signaling Organelles Involved in Health and Disease: Basic Science and Clinical Applications

1,†
,
1,†
,
2
,
3
,
1
 and
1,*
1 Department of Biopathology and Biomedical and Forensic Biotechnologies, Section of Biology and Genetics, Università di Palermo, Palermo 90133, Italy 2 Exosomics Siena SpA, Siena 53100, Italy 3 Department of Internal and Specialistic Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, Università di Palermo, Palermo 90129, Italy These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [495 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figure

Abstract

Cell to cell communication is essential for the coordination and proper organization of different cell types in multicellular systems. Cells exchange information through a multitude of mechanisms such as secreted growth factors and chemokines, small molecules (peptides, ions, bioactive lipids and nucleotides), cell-cell contact and the secretion of extracellular matrix components. Over the last few years, however, a considerable amount of experimental evidence has demonstrated the occurrence of a sophisticated method of cell communication based on the release of specialized membranous nano-sized vesicles termed exosomes. Exosome biogenesis involves the endosomal compartment, the multivesicular bodies (MVB), which contain internal vesicles packed with an extraordinary set of molecules including enzymes, cytokines, nucleic acids and different bioactive compounds. In response to stimuli, MVB fuse with the plasma membrane and vesicles are released in the extracellular space where they can interact with neighboring cells and directly induce a signaling pathway or affect the cellular phenotype through the transfer of new receptors or even genetic material. This review will focus on exosomes as intercellular signaling organelles involved in a number of physiological as well as pathological processes and their potential use in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.
Keywords: cancer microenvironment; exosomes; cell signaling; cancer markers cancer microenvironment; exosomes; cell signaling; cancer markers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Corrado, C.; Raimondo, S.; Chiesi, A.; Ciccia, F.; De Leo, G.; Alessandro, R. Exosomes as Intercellular Signaling Organelles Involved in Health and Disease: Basic Science and Clinical Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 5338-5366.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert