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Regulation of Translation Initiation under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas, INIA-UPM, Campus de Montegancedo, 28223 Madrid, Spain
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas CSIC-Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work, respectively.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2013; in revised form: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 26 February 2013
Abstract: Plants have developed versatile strategies to deal with the great variety of challenging conditions they are exposed to. Among them, the regulation of translation is a common target to finely modulate gene expression both under biotic and abiotic stress situations. Upon environmental challenges, translation is regulated to reduce the consumption of energy and to selectively synthesize proteins involved in the proper establishment of the tolerance response. In the case of viral infections, the situation is more complex, as viruses have evolved unconventional mechanisms to regulate translation in order to ensure the production of the viral encoded proteins using the plant machinery. Although the final purpose is different, in some cases, both plants and viruses share common mechanisms to modulate translation. In others, the mechanisms leading to the control of translation are viral- or stress-specific. In this paper, we review the different mechanisms involved in the regulation of translation initiation under virus infection and under environmental stress in plants. In addition, we describe the main features within the viral RNAs and the cellular mRNAs that promote their selective translation in plants undergoing biotic and abiotic stress situations.
Keywords: regulation of translation; eIF4E; eIF2α; plant abiotic stress; IRES; cIRES; CITES; cap-dependent enhancers
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MDPI and ACS Style
Echevarría-Zomeño, S.; Yángüez, E.; Fernández-Bautista, N.; Castro-Sanz, A.B.; Ferrando, A.; Castellano, M.M. Regulation of Translation Initiation under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 4670-4683.
Echevarría-Zomeño S, Yángüez E, Fernández-Bautista N, Castro-Sanz AB, Ferrando A, Castellano MM. Regulation of Translation Initiation under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(3):4670-4683.
Echevarría-Zomeño, Sira; Yángüez, Emilio; Fernández-Bautista, Nuria; Castro-Sanz, Ana B.; Ferrando, Alejandro; Castellano, M. M. 2013. "Regulation of Translation Initiation under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 3: 4670-4683.