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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 3860-3873; doi:10.3390/ijms14023860

Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

1 Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Chia-Yi, Taiwan 2 Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 3 Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 4 School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 12 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death 2012)
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Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM) in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05), but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05) in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.
Keywords: Artocarpus communis; ultraviolet; antioxidant; anti-inflammation; photoprotective Artocarpus communis; ultraviolet; antioxidant; anti-inflammation; photoprotective
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lee, C.-W.; Ko, H.-H.; Chai, C.-Y.; Chen, W.-T.; Lin, C.-C.; Yen, F.-L. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 3860-3873.

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