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Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem
Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
School of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Department of biotechnology, TransWorld University, Yunlin 640, Taiwan
School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
Department of Nursing, Chung-Jen College of Nursing, Health Sciences and Management, Chiayi 600, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2012; in revised form: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 30 January 2013
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC50, 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOSEtOH was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOSEtOH was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOSEtOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl4-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOSEtOH reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOSEtOH were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOSEtOH has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOSEtOH for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine.
Keywords: Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata; high-performance liquid chromatography; hepatoprotective effect; malondialdehyde
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chao, J.; Liao, J.-W.; Peng, W.-H.; Lee, M.-S.; Pao, L.-H.; Cheng, H.-Y. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 2928-2945.
Chao J, Liao J-W, Peng W-H, Lee M-S, Pao L-H, Cheng H-Y. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(2):2928-2945.
Chao, Jung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Pao, Li-Heng; Cheng, Hao-Yuan. 2013. "Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 2: 2928-2945.