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Regulation of Phosphatidylethanolamine Homeostasis — The Critical Role of CTP:Phosphoethanolamine Cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2)
Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2012; in revised form: 2 January 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
Abstract: Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is the most abundant lipid on the protoplasmatic leaflet of cellular membranes. It has a pivotal role in cellular processes such as membrane fusion, cell cycle regulation, autophagy, and apoptosis. CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2) is the main regulatory enzyme in de novo biosynthesis of PE from ethanolamine and diacylglycerol by the CDP-ethanolamine Kennedy pathway. The following is a summary of the current state of knowledge on Pcyt2 and how splicing and isoform specific differences could lead to variations in functional properties in this family of enzymes. Results from the most recent studies on Pcyt2 transcriptional regulation, promoter function, autophagy, and cell growth regulation are highlighted. Recent data obtained from Pcyt2 knockout mouse models is also presented, demonstrating the essentiality of this gene in embryonic development as well as the major physiological consequences of deletion of one Pcyt2 allele. Those include development of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome such as elevated lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion, hypertriglyceridemia, liver steatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to elucidate the nature of Pcyt2 regulation by linking its catalytic function with the regulation of lipid and energy homeostasis.
Keywords: phosphatidylethanolamine; CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase; Pcyt2; lipid homeostasis; cell growth; hypertriglyceridemia; liver steatosis; obesity; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome
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MDPI and ACS Style
Pavlovic, Z.; Bakovic, M. Regulation of Phosphatidylethanolamine Homeostasis — The Critical Role of CTP:Phosphoethanolamine Cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 2529-2550.
Pavlovic Z, Bakovic M. Regulation of Phosphatidylethanolamine Homeostasis — The Critical Role of CTP:Phosphoethanolamine Cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(2):2529-2550.
Pavlovic, Zvezdan; Bakovic, Marica. 2013. "Regulation of Phosphatidylethanolamine Homeostasis — The Critical Role of CTP:Phosphoethanolamine Cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 2: 2529-2550.