Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 23791-23800; doi:10.3390/ijms141223791
Article

The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

1 Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON K0J1P0, Canada 2 Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, B.P. 17, Fontenay aux Roses Cedex 92262, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2013; in revised form: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
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Abstract: Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO) at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.
Keywords: β-radiation; tritium; cytotoxicity; radioadaptive response; apoptosis; in vivo

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MDPI and ACS Style

Flegal, M.; Blimkie, M.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Gregoire, E.; Klokov, D. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23791-23800.

AMA Style

Flegal M, Blimkie M, Roch-Lefevre S, Gregoire E, Klokov D. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):23791-23800.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Flegal, Matthew; Blimkie, Melinda; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Gregoire, Eric; Klokov, Dmitry. 2013. "The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 23791-23800.

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