Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 927-943; doi:10.3390/ijms15010927
Review

The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers

Received: 21 October 2013; in revised form: 26 December 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 10 January 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, the beneficial effects of radiation can extend beyond direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells. Delivery of localized radiation to tumors often leads to systemic responses at distant sites, a phenomenon known as the abscopal effect which has been attributed to the induction and enhancement of the endogenous anti-tumor innate and adaptive immune response. The mechanisms surrounding the abscopal effect are diverse and include trafficking of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment, enhanced tumor recognition and killing via up-regulation of tumor antigens and antigen presenting machinery and, induction of positive immunomodulatory pathways. Here, we discuss potential mechanisms of radiation-induced enhancement of the anti-tumor response through its effect on the host immune system and explore potential combinational immune-based strategies such as adoptive cellular therapy using ex vivo expanded NK and T cells as a means of delivering a potent effector population in the context of radiation-enhanced anti-tumor immune environment.
Keywords: radiation; abscopal effect; cell therapy; trafficking; recognition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, B.; Yee, C.; Lee, K.-M. The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 927-943.

AMA Style

Park B, Yee C, Lee K-M. The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(1):927-943.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Bonggoo; Yee, Cassian; Lee, Kyung-Mi. 2014. "The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 1: 927-943.

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