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The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers
Global Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, 126-1 Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 7455 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77054, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2013; in revised form: 26 December 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 10 January 2014
Abstract: In cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, the beneficial effects of radiation can extend beyond direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells. Delivery of localized radiation to tumors often leads to systemic responses at distant sites, a phenomenon known as the abscopal effect which has been attributed to the induction and enhancement of the endogenous anti-tumor innate and adaptive immune response. The mechanisms surrounding the abscopal effect are diverse and include trafficking of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment, enhanced tumor recognition and killing via up-regulation of tumor antigens and antigen presenting machinery and, induction of positive immunomodulatory pathways. Here, we discuss potential mechanisms of radiation-induced enhancement of the anti-tumor response through its effect on the host immune system and explore potential combinational immune-based strategies such as adoptive cellular therapy using ex vivo expanded NK and T cells as a means of delivering a potent effector population in the context of radiation-enhanced anti-tumor immune environment.
Keywords: radiation; abscopal effect; cell therapy; trafficking; recognition
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Park, B.; Yee, C.; Lee, K.-M. The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 927-943.
Park B, Yee C, Lee K-M. The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(1):927-943.
Park, Bonggoo; Yee, Cassian; Lee, Kyung-Mi. 2014. "The Effect of Radiation on the Immune Response to Cancers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 1: 927-943.