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An Exploratory Evaluation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibition in Planaria as a Model for Parkinsonism
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
Current Address: College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76203, USA
Current Address: College of Arts and Science, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
Current Address: Thermo Fisher Scientific, West Palm Beach, FL 33407, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2013; in revised form: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Abstract: Planaria are the simplest organisms with bilateral symmetry and a central nervous system (CNS) with cephalization; therefore, they could be useful as model organisms to investigate mechanistic aspects of parkinsonism and to screen potential therapeutic agents. Taking advantage of the organism’s anti-tropism towards light, we measured a significantly reduced locomotor velocity in planaria after exposure to 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase that is an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. A simple semi-automatic assay using videotaped experiments and subsequent evaluation by tracking software was also implemented to increase throughput. The dopaminergic regulation of locomotor velocity was confirmed by bromocriptine, a drug whose mechanisms of action to treat Parkinson’s disease is believed to be through the stimulation of nerves that control movement.
Keywords: planaria; parkinsonism; tyrosine hydroxylase; monoiodotyrosine; bromocriptine; antiparkinsonian agent
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MDPI and ACS Style
Prokai, D.; Nguyen, T.; Kamrowski, K.; Chandra, A.; Talamantes, T.; Baxter, L.R.; Prokai, L. An Exploratory Evaluation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibition in Planaria as a Model for Parkinsonism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23289-23296.
Prokai D, Nguyen T, Kamrowski K, Chandra A, Talamantes T, Baxter LR, Prokai L. An Exploratory Evaluation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibition in Planaria as a Model for Parkinsonism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):23289-23296.
Prokai, David; Nguyen, Thinh; Kamrowski, Kurt; Chandra, Ashwin; Talamantes, Tatjana; Baxter, Lewis R.; Prokai, Laszlo. 2013. "An Exploratory Evaluation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibition in Planaria as a Model for Parkinsonism." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 23289-23296.