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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 23341-23355; doi:10.3390/ijms141223341
Article

Does the Neuroprotective Role of Anandamide Display Diurnal Variations?

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Received: 3 October 2013; in revised form: 17 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract: The endocannabinoid system is a component of the neuroprotective mechanisms that an organism displays after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A diurnal variation in several components of this system has been reported. This variation may influence the recovery and survival rate after TBI. We have previously reported that the recovery and survival rate of rats is higher if TBI occurs at 1:00 than at 13:00. This could be explained by a diurnal variation of the endocannabinoid system. Here, we describe the effects of anandamide administration in rats prior to the induction of TBI at two different times of the day: 1:00 and 13:00. We found that anandamide reduced the neurological damage at both times. Nevertheless, its effects on bleeding, survival, food intake, and body weight were dependent on the time of TBI. In addition, we analyzed the diurnal variation of the expression of the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R in the cerebral cortex of both control rats and rats subjected to TBI. We found that CB1R protein was expressed more during the day, whereas its mRNA level was higher during the night. We did not find a diurnal variation for the CB2R. In addition, we also found that TBI increased CB1R and CB2R in the contralateral hemisphere and disrupted the CB1R diurnal cycle.
Keywords: cannabinoid receptor; anandamide; circadian rhythms; cerebral cortex; neuroprotection cannabinoid receptor; anandamide; circadian rhythms; cerebral cortex; neuroprotection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez-Vargas, M.; Morales-Gomez, J.; Gonzalez-Rivera, R.; Hernandez-Enriquez, C.; Perez-Arredondo, A.; Estrada-Rojo, F.; Navarro, L. Does the Neuroprotective Role of Anandamide Display Diurnal Variations? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23341-23355.

AMA Style

Martinez-Vargas M, Morales-Gomez J, Gonzalez-Rivera R, Hernandez-Enriquez C, Perez-Arredondo A, Estrada-Rojo F, Navarro L. Does the Neuroprotective Role of Anandamide Display Diurnal Variations? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):23341-23355.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martinez-Vargas, Marina; Morales-Gomez, Julio; Gonzalez-Rivera, Ruben; Hernandez-Enriquez, Carla; Perez-Arredondo, Adan; Estrada-Rojo, Francisco; Navarro, Luz. 2013. "Does the Neuroprotective Role of Anandamide Display Diurnal Variations?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 23341-23355.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert