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GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sana'a-University, P.O. Box 33039, Sana'a, Yemen
Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2013; in revised form: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Abstract: Leucas virgata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae) was collected from the Island Soqotra (Yemen) and its essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast species by using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and antioxidant activity by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. The investigation led to the identification of 43 constituents, representing 93.9% of the total oil. The essential oil of L. virgata was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (50.8%). Camphor (20.5%) exo-fenchol (3.4%), fenchon (5.4%), and borneol (3.1%) were identified as the main components. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found as the second major group of compounds (21.0%). β-Eudesmol (6.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.1%) were the major compounds among oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that the oil exhibited a great antibacterial activity against the tested S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli. No activity was found against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Moreover, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited only a moderate antioxidant activity (31%) for the oil at the highest concentration tested (1 mg/mL).
Keywords: Leucas virgata; Soqotra; essential oil; antimicrobial; antioxidant
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Mothana, R.A.; Al-Said, M.S.; Al-Yahya, M.A.; Al-Rehaily, A.J.; Khaled, J.M. GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23129-23139.
Mothana RA, Al-Said MS, Al-Yahya MA, Al-Rehaily AJ, Khaled JM. GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):23129-23139.
Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Said, Mansour S.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.; Khaled, Jamal M. 2013. "GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 23129-23139.