Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21757-21780; doi:10.3390/ijms141121757
Article

Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment

Received: 18 September 2013; in revised form: 13 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment) and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement). This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+)-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic) response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria.
Keywords: marine bacteria; natural products; anti-biofilm; bacterial attachment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salta, M.; Wharton, J.A.; Dennington, S.P.; Stoodley, P.; Stokes, K.R. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21757-21780.

AMA Style

Salta M, Wharton JA, Dennington SP, Stoodley P, Stokes KR. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):21757-21780.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salta, Maria; Wharton, Julian A.; Dennington, Simon P.; Stoodley, Paul; Stokes, Keith R. 2013. "Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 21757-21780.

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