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Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment
National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Physical Sciences Department, the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2013; in revised form: 13 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Abstract: Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment) and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement). This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+)-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic) response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria.
Keywords: marine bacteria; natural products; anti-biofilm; bacterial attachment
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Salta, M.; Wharton, J.A.; Dennington, S.P.; Stoodley, P.; Stokes, K.R. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21757-21780.
Salta M, Wharton JA, Dennington SP, Stoodley P, Stokes KR. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):21757-21780.
Salta, Maria; Wharton, Julian A.; Dennington, Simon P.; Stoodley, Paul; Stokes, Keith R. 2013. "Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 21757-21780.