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NF-κB-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina in Macrophages RAW 264.7
Department of Agrofood Resources, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 441-853, Korea
Department of Biotechnology & Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2013; in revised form: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Abstract: Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, a herbal medicine, has long been used in Korea for the treatment of sore throat, and to alleviate fever and accelerate wound healing. Although the therapeutic effect of P. vulgaris var. lilacina is likely associated with anti-inflammatory activity, the precise underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we sought to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the various solvent fractions (hexane, butanol, chloroform and water) from the ethanol extract of P. vulgaris var. lilacina in activated macrophages. The hexane fraction exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activities, inducing inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Moreover, the hexane fraction from P. vulgaris var. lilacina significantly inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits. These results indicate that P. vulgaris var. lilacina has an anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents.
Keywords: Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina; anti-inflammation; NO; PGE2; NF-κB
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Hwang, Y.-J.; Lee, E.-J.; Kim, H.-R.; Hwang, K.-A. NF-κB-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina in Macrophages RAW 264.7. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21489-21503.
Hwang Y-J, Lee E-J, Kim H-R, Hwang K-A. NF-κB-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina in Macrophages RAW 264.7. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):21489-21503.
Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A. 2013. "NF-κB-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina in Macrophages RAW 264.7." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 21489-21503.