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Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN
Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital & the Institute of Urology, Peking University, Beijing 100034, China
National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing 100034, China
Sino-German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, FuWai Hospital & Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China
Department of Urology, Shanxi Medical University First Hospital, Taiyuan 030001, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2013; in revised form: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Abstract: Kaempferol (Kae), a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN)/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism.
Keywords: kaempferol; bladder cancer; apoptosis; PTEN; Akt
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MDPI and ACS Style
Xie, F.; Su, M.; Qiu, W.; Zhang, M.; Guo, Z.; Su, B.; Liu, J.; Li, X.; Zhou, L. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21215-21226.
Xie F, Su M, Qiu W, Zhang M, Guo Z, Su B, Liu J, Li X, Zhou L. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):21215-21226.
Xie, Feng; Su, Ming; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Min; Guo, Zhongqiang; Su, Boxing; Liu, Jie; Li, Xuesong; Zhou, Liqun. 2013. "Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 21215-21226.