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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21215-21226; doi:10.3390/ijms141121215
Article

Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN

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1 Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital & the Institute of Urology, Peking University, Beijing 100034, China 2 National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing 100034, China 3 Sino-German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, FuWai Hospital & Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China 4 Department of Urology, Shanxi Medical University First Hospital, Taiyuan 030001, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Kaempferol (Kae), a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN)/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism.
Keywords: kaempferol; bladder cancer; apoptosis; PTEN; Akt kaempferol; bladder cancer; apoptosis; PTEN; Akt
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Xie, F.; Su, M.; Qiu, W.; Zhang, M.; Guo, Z.; Su, B.; Liu, J.; Li, X.; Zhou, L. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21215-21226.

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