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Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis
Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 736 Wilson Rd., Room D202, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2013; in revised form: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Abstract: The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammation, however, can be resolved with ingestion of other fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFA. The influence of dietary PUFA on phospholipid composition is influenced by factors that control phospholipid biosynthesis within cellular membranes, such as preferential incorporation of some fatty acids, competition between newly ingested PUFA and fatty acids released from stores such as adipose, and the impacts of carbohydrate metabolism and physiological state. The objective of this review is to explain these factors as potential obstacles to manipulating PUFA composition of tissue phospholipids by specific dietary fatty acids. A better understanding of the factors that influence how dietary fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids may lead to nutritional intervention strategies that optimize health.
Keywords: diet; phospholipid; fatty acid; lipid mediator; eicosanoid; inflammation; lipoxygenase; cyclooxygenase
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MDPI and ACS Style
Raphael, W.; Sordillo, L.M. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21167-21188.
Raphael W, Sordillo LM. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(10):21167-21188.
Raphael, William; Sordillo, Lorraine M. 2013. "Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 10: 21167-21188.