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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 954-963; doi:10.3390/ijms14010954
Article

Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

1,* , 2
,
3
,
1
 and
4
1 Research Center for Fisheries Oceanography and Marine Ecosystem, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan 2 National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environmental Inland Sea Hakatajima Station, Fisheries Research Agency, Kinoura 2780, Hakata, Imabari 794-2305, Japan 3 Coastal Fisheries and Aquaculture Division, Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Agency, Shinhama, Shiogama 985-0001, Japan 4 Research Center for Aquatic Genomics, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φST = −0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.
Keywords: marine fish; Pleuronectiformes; gene flow; haplotype; fixation index; phylogenetic information marine fish; Pleuronectiformes; gene flow; haplotype; fixation index; phylogenetic information
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Shigenobu, Y.; Yoneda, M.; Kurita, Y.; Ambe, D.; Saitoh, K. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 954-963.

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