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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 625-639; doi:10.3390/ijms14010625

Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Regulates the Expression of Human Testis-Enriched Leucine-Rich Repeats and WD Repeat Domain Containing 1 (LRWD1) Gene

Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, National University of Tainan, No.33, Sec. 2, Shulin St., West Central District, Tainan City 700, Taiwan
Department of Biotechnology, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 28 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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The human Leucine-rich Repeats and WD repeat Domain containing 1 (LRWD1) gene was originally identified by cDNA microarray as one of the genes down-regulated in the testicular tissues of patients with severe spermatogenic defects. Human LRWD1 is a testicular-enriched protein that is present predominantly in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes and spermatids and colocalizes with the centrosome at the base of sperm tail. Reporter assay, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, and gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were used to identify the core promoter region of LRWD1. A 198 bp segment upstream of the LRWD1 transcription initiation site exhibited promoter activity. The LRWD1 core promoter lacked a TATA box but contained a NF-κB binding site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed basal binding of the NF-κB subunit to the LRWD1 promoter. LRWD1 promoter activity was positively regulated by NF-κB, and this regulation was dependent on the presence of the conserved κB site in the LRWD1 promoter region. Our data suggest that NF-κB is an important regulator for the expression of LRWD1. This is the first study showing that the expression of the testis-enriched LRWD1 gene is regulated by NF-κB.
Keywords: NF-κB; LRWD1; promoter NF-κB; LRWD1; promoter
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Teng, Y.-N.; Chuang, P.-J.; Liu, Y.-W. Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Regulates the Expression of Human Testis-Enriched Leucine-Rich Repeats and WD Repeat Domain Containing 1 (LRWD1) Gene. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 625-639.

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