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Dendritic Cells and Multiple Sclerosis: Disease, Tolerance and Therapy
The Laboratory of Neuroinflammation, St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2010, Australia
School of Biomedical sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
Institute for Immunology and Allergy Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney 2145, Australia
Jordi Serrats: Neuroinflammation Disease Biology Unit, Lundbeck Research USA, 215 College Road, Paramus, NJ 07652, USA
Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Perth 6872, Australia
Laboratory of Neuronal Structure and Function, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2012; in revised form: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating neurological disease that predominantly affects young adults resulting in severe personal and economic impact. The majority of therapies for this disease were developed in, or are beneficial in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS. While known to target adaptive anti-CNS immune responses, they also target, the innate immune arm. This mini-review focuses on the role of dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen presenting cells of the innate immune system. The evidence for a role for DCs in the appropriate regulation of anti-CNS autoimmune responses and their role in MS disease susceptibility and possible therapeutic utility are discussed. Additionally, the current controversy regarding the evidence for the presence of functional DCs in the normal CNS is reviewed. Furthermore, the role of CNS DCs and potential routes of their intercourse between the CNS and cervical lymph nodes are considered. Finally, the future role that this nexus between the CNS and the cervical lymph nodes might play in site directed molecular and cellular therapy for MS is outlined.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; dendritic cell; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; cervical lymph node; molecular therapy; cellular therapy; site directed local therapy
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Mohammad, M.G.; Hassanpour, M.; Tsai, V.W.W.; Li, H.; Ruitenberg, M.J.; Booth, D.R.; Serrats, J.; Hart, P.H.; Symonds, G.P.; Sawchenko, P.E.; Breit, S.N.; Brown, D.A. Dendritic Cells and Multiple Sclerosis: Disease, Tolerance and Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 547-562.
Mohammad MG, Hassanpour M, Tsai VWW, Li H, Ruitenberg MJ, Booth DR, Serrats J, Hart PH, Symonds GP, Sawchenko PE, Breit SN, Brown DA. Dendritic Cells and Multiple Sclerosis: Disease, Tolerance and Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):547-562.
Mohammad, Mohammad G.; Hassanpour, Masoud; Tsai, Vicky W.W.; Li, Hui; Ruitenberg, Marc J.; Booth, David R.; Serrats, Jordi; Hart, Prue H.; Symonds, Geoffrey P.; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Breit, Samuel N.; Brown, David A. 2013. "Dendritic Cells and Multiple Sclerosis: Disease, Tolerance and Therapy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 547-562.