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Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
Centre of Excellence for Food Safety Research (CEFSR), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang 11800, Malaysia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2012; in revised form: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
Abstract: Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.
Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction; catfish fish oil; viscera; response surface methodology
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sarker, M.Z.I.; Selamat, J.; Habib, A.S.M.A.; Ferdosh, S.; Akanda, M.J.H.; Jaffri, J.M. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11312-11322.
Sarker MZI, Selamat J, Habib ASMA, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJH, Jaffri JM. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11312-11322.
Sarker, Mohamed Zaidul Islam; Selamat, Jinap; Habib, Abu Sayem Md. Ahsan; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Mohamed Jahurul Haque; Jaffri, Juliana Mohamed. 2012. "Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11312-11322.