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Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis
State Engineering Laboratory for Bioresource Eco-Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2012; in revised form: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
Abstract: Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.
Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis; carnosic acid; rosmarinic acid; ionic liquid; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology
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Zu, G.; Zhang, R.; Yang, L.; Ma, C.; Zu, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhao, C. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11027-11043.
Zu G, Zhang R, Yang L, Ma C, Zu Y, Wang W, Zhao C. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11027-11043.
Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian. 2012. "Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11027-11043.