Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 10722-10735; doi:10.3390/ijms130910722
Article

Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response

1email, 2email, 3email, 4,* email and 2,* email
Received: 18 June 2012; in revised form: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs.
Keywords: Nymphaea rubra Roxb.; pullulanase; polysaccharides; dendritic cells; TH1 immune response; functional foods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Lien, Y.-Y.; Lee, M.-S.; Sheu, S.-C. Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10722-10735.

AMA Style

Cheng J-H, Lee S-Y, Lien Y-Y, Lee M-S, Sheu S-C. Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):10722-10735.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen. 2012. "Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 10722-10735.


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