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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 10722-10735; doi:10.3390/ijms130910722

Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response

1
The Department of Nursing, Shu Zen College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung 821, Taiwan
2
Department of Food Science, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuehfu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuehfu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
4
Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Science and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs.
Keywords: Nymphaea rubra Roxb.; pullulanase; polysaccharides; dendritic cells; TH1 immune response; functional foods Nymphaea rubra Roxb.; pullulanase; polysaccharides; dendritic cells; TH1 immune response; functional foods
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Lien, Y.-Y.; Lee, M.-S.; Sheu, S.-C. Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10722-10735.

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