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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 10722-10735; doi:10.3390/ijms130910722
Article

Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response

1
, 2
, 3
, 4,*  and 2,*
1 The Department of Nursing, Shu Zen College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung 821, Taiwan 2 Department of Food Science, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuehfu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan 3 Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuehfu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan 4 Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Science and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs.
Keywords: Nymphaea rubra Roxb.; pullulanase; polysaccharides; dendritic cells; TH1 immune response; functional foods Nymphaea rubra Roxb.; pullulanase; polysaccharides; dendritic cells; TH1 immune response; functional foods
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Cheng, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Lien, Y.-Y.; Lee, M.-S.; Sheu, S.-C. Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10722-10735.

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