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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10478-10504; doi:10.3390/ijms130810478
Review

The Role of Free Radicals in the Aging Brain and Parkinson’s Disease: Convergence and Parallelism

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Received: 2 July 2012; in revised form: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
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Abstract: Free radical production and their targeted action on biomolecules have roles in aging and age-related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is an age-associated increase in oxidative damage to the brain, and aging is considered a risk factor for PD. Dopaminergic neurons show linear fallout of 5–10% per decade with aging; however, the rate and intensity of neuronal loss in patients with PD is more marked than that of aging. Here, we enumerate the common link between aging and PD at the cellular level with special reference to oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Oxidative damage includes mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine auto-oxidation, α-synuclein aggregation, glial cell activation, alterations in calcium signaling, and excess free iron. Moreover, neurons encounter more oxidative stress as a counteracting mechanism with advancing age does not function properly. Alterations in transcriptional activity of various pathways, including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, mitogen activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione with aging might be correlated with the increased incidence of PD.
Keywords: free radicals; aging; Parkinson’s disease; α-synuclein; mitochondrial dysfunction; nrf2 free radicals; aging; Parkinson’s disease; α-synuclein; mitochondrial dysfunction; nrf2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, H.; Lim, H.-W.; More, S.V.; Kim, B.-W.; Koppula, S.; Kim, I.S.; Choi, D.-K. The Role of Free Radicals in the Aging Brain and Parkinson’s Disease: Convergence and Parallelism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10478-10504.

AMA Style

Kumar H, Lim H-W, More SV, Kim B-W, Koppula S, Kim IS, Choi D-K. The Role of Free Radicals in the Aging Brain and Parkinson’s Disease: Convergence and Parallelism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(8):10478-10504.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Hemant; Lim, Hyung-Woo; More, Sandeep Vasant; Kim, Byung-Wook; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, In Su; Choi, Dong-Kug. 2012. "The Role of Free Radicals in the Aging Brain and Parkinson’s Disease: Convergence and Parallelism." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 8: 10478-10504.


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