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Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Vegetables and Its Relation with Phenolic Composition
Department of Agri-Food Industry, Food and Nutrition, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Av. Pádua Dias, 11, CEP 13418-900, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2012; in revised form: 9 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Abstract: Vegetables are widely consumed in Brazil and exported to several countries. This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vegetables commonly consumed in Brazil using five different methods, namely DPPH and ABTS free radical, β-carotene bleaching, reduction of Fe3+ (FRAP), oxidative stability in Rancimat, and the chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1.2 mg GA/g (carrot) to 16.9 mg GA/g (lettuce). Vegetables presenting the highest antioxidant activity were lettuce (77.2 µmol Trolox/g DPPH•; 447.1 µmol F2+/g FRAP), turmeric (118.6 µmol Trolox/g ABTS•+; 92.8% β-carotene), watercress and broccoli (protective factor 1.29—Rancimat method). Artichoke, spinach, broccoli, and asparagus also showed considerable antioxidant activity. The most frequent phenolic compounds identified by GC-MS were ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric, 2-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids, and quercetin. We observed antioxidant activity in several vegetables and our results point out their importance in the diet.
Keywords: antioxidant activity; phenolic compounds; vegetables; GC-MS
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Tiveron, A.P.; Melo, P.S.; Bergamaschi, K.B.; Vieira, T.M.F.S.; Regitano-d’Arce, M.A.B.; Alencar, S.M. Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Vegetables and Its Relation with Phenolic Composition. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8943-8957.
Tiveron AP, Melo PS, Bergamaschi KB, Vieira TMFS, Regitano-d’Arce MAB, Alencar SM. Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Vegetables and Its Relation with Phenolic Composition. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7):8943-8957.
Tiveron, Ana P.; Melo, Priscilla S.; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Vieira, Thais M. F. S.; Regitano-d’Arce, Marisa A. B.; Alencar, Severino M. 2012. "Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Vegetables and Its Relation with Phenolic Composition." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 7: 8943-8957.