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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(7), 8097-8111; doi:10.3390/ijms13078097

Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants

1
Department of Food Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1%) and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.
Keywords: antioxidant; palm kernel cake; protein hydrolysates; HPLC; bioactive peptide antioxidant; palm kernel cake; protein hydrolysates; HPLC; bioactive peptide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zarei, M.; Ebrahimpour, A.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Anwar, F.; Saari, N. Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8097-8111.

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