Fragment C of Tetanus Toxin: New Insights into Its Neuronal Signaling Pathway
AbstractWhen Clostridium tetani was discovered and identified as a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium, the possibility of turning its toxin into a valuable biological carrier to ameliorate neurodegenerative processes was inconceivable. However, the non-toxic carboxy-terminal fragment of the tetanus toxin heavy chain (fragment C) can be retrogradely transported to the central nervous system; therefore, fragment C has been used as a valuable biological carrier of neurotrophic factors to ameliorate neurodegenerative processes. More recently, the neuroprotective properties of fragment C have also been described in vitro and in vivo, involving the activation of Akt kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades through neurotrophin tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptors. Although the precise mechanism of the molecular internalization of fragment C in neuronal cells remains unknown, fragment C could be internalized and translocated into the neuronal cytosol through a clathrin-mediated pathway dependent on proteins, such as dynamin and AP-2. In this review, the origins, molecular properties and possible signaling pathways of fragment C are reviewed to understand the biochemical characteristics of its intracellular and synaptic transport.
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Calvo, A.C.; Oliván, S.; Manzano, R.; Zaragoza, P.; Aguilera, J.; Osta, R. Fragment C of Tetanus Toxin: New Insights into Its Neuronal Signaling Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 6883-6901.
Calvo AC, Oliván S, Manzano R, Zaragoza P, Aguilera J, Osta R. Fragment C of Tetanus Toxin: New Insights into Its Neuronal Signaling Pathway. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(6):6883-6901.Chicago/Turabian Style
Calvo, Ana C.; Oliván, Sara; Manzano, Raquel; Zaragoza, Pilar; Aguilera, José; Osta, Rosario. 2012. "Fragment C of Tetanus Toxin: New Insights into Its Neuronal Signaling Pathway." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 6: 6883-6901.