Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(4), 4396-4411; doi:10.3390/ijms13044396
Article

High Genetic Diversity and Low Differentiation of Michelia coriacea (Magnoliaceae), a Critically Endangered Endemic in Southeast Yunnan, China

Received: 20 January 2012; in revised form: 14 March 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Michelia coriacea, a critically endangered tree, has a restricted and fragmented distribution in Southeast Yunnan Province, China. The genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow in the three extant populations of this species were detected by 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Examination of genetic diversity revealed that the species maintained a relatively high level of genetic diversity at the species level (percentage of polymorphic bands) PPB = 96.36% from ISSRs; PPL (percentage of polymorphic loci) = 95.56% from SSRs, despite several fragmental populations. Low levels of genetic differentiation among the populations of M. coriacea were detected by Nei’s Gst = 0.187 for ISSR and Wright’s Fst = 0.090 for SSR markers, which is further confirmed by Bayesian model-based STRUCTURE and PCoA analysis that could not reveal a clear separation between populations, although YKP was differentiated to other two populations by ISSR markers. Meanwhile, AMOVA analysis also indicated that 22.84% and 13.90% of genetic variation existed among populations for ISSRs and SSRs, respectively. The high level of genetic diversity, low genetic differentiation, and the population, structure imply that the fragmented habitat and the isolated population of M. coriacea may be due to recent over-exploitation. Conservation and management of M. coriacea should concentrate on maintaining the high level of genetic variability through both in and ex-situ conservation actions.
Keywords: Michelia coriacea; genetic diversity; critically endangered plant; ISSR markers; SSR markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, X.; Ma, Y.; Sun, W.; Wen, X.; Milne, R. High Genetic Diversity and Low Differentiation of Michelia coriacea (Magnoliaceae), a Critically Endangered Endemic in Southeast Yunnan, China. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4396-4411.

AMA Style

Zhao X, Ma Y, Sun W, Wen X, Milne R. High Genetic Diversity and Low Differentiation of Michelia coriacea (Magnoliaceae), a Critically Endangered Endemic in Southeast Yunnan, China. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):4396-4411.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Xingfeng; Ma, Yongpeng; Sun, Weibang; Wen, Xiangying; Milne, Richard. 2012. "High Genetic Diversity and Low Differentiation of Michelia coriacea (Magnoliaceae), a Critically Endangered Endemic in Southeast Yunnan, China." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 4396-4411.

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