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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(4), 4186-4201; doi:10.3390/ijms13044186
Article

The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

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Received: 12 February 2012; in revised form: 13 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 March 2012 / Published: 30 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index.
Keywords: wheat; kernel hardness; puroindoline alleles; protein content; mixing parameters wheat; kernel hardness; puroindoline alleles; protein content; mixing parameters
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Salmanowicz, B.P.; Adamski, T.; Surma, M.; Kaczmarek, Z.; Karolina, K.; Kuczyńska, A.; Banaszak, Z.; Ługowska, B.; Majcher, M.; Obuchowski, W. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4186-4201.

AMA Style

Salmanowicz BP, Adamski T, Surma M, Kaczmarek Z, Karolina K, Kuczyńska A, Banaszak Z, Ługowska B, Majcher M, Obuchowski W. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):4186-4201.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor. 2012. "The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 4186-4201.


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