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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3703-3717; doi:10.3390/ijms13033703
Article

Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Gene Expressions in Human Cell Lines

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Received: 27 December 2011; in revised form: 13 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) are tiny materials used in a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a type of nanoparticle that is widely used in paints, pigments, and cosmetics; however, little is known about the impact of TiO2 on human health and the environment. Therefore, considerable research has focused on characterizing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles such as TiO2 and on understanding the mechanism of TiO2 NP-induced nanotoxicity through the evaluation of biomarkers. Uncoated TiO2 NPs tend to aggregate in aqueous media, and these aggregates decrease cell viability and induce expression of stress-related genes, such as those encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heat shock protein 70B’ (HSP70B’), indicating that TiO2 NPs induce inflammatory and heat shock responses. In order to reduce their toxicity, we conjugated TiO2 NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to eliminate aggregation. Our findings indicate that modifying TiO2 NPs with PEG reduces their cytotoxicity and reduces the induction of stress-related genes. Our results also suggest that TiO2 NP-induced effects on cytotoxicity and gene expression vary depending upon the cell type and surface modification.
Keywords: nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; nanotoxicology; gene expression nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; nanotoxicology; gene expression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mano, S.S.; Kanehira, K.; Sonezaki, S.; Taniguchi, A. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Gene Expressions in Human Cell Lines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3703-3717.

AMA Style

Mano SS, Kanehira K, Sonezaki S, Taniguchi A. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Gene Expressions in Human Cell Lines. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3703-3717.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mano, Sharmy Saimon; Kanehira, Koki; Sonezaki, Shuji; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi. 2012. "Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Modification of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity and Gene Expressions in Human Cell Lines." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3703-3717.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert