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Cellulose Biosynthesis Inhibitors: Comparative Effect on Bean Cell Cultures
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Sciences, Plant Physiology Lab, University of León, E-24071, León, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2011; in revised form: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 8 March 2012 / Published: 20 March 2012
Abstract: The variety of bioassays developed to evaluate different inhibition responses for cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors makes it difficult to compare the results obtained. This work aims (i) to test a single inhibitory assay for comparing active concentrations of a set of putative cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors and (ii) to characterize their effect on cell wall polysaccharides biosynthesis following a short-term exposure. For the first aim, dose-response curves for inhibition of dry-weight increase following a 30 days exposure of bean callus-cultured cells to these inhibitors were obtained. The compound concentration capable of inhibiting dry weight increase by 50% compared to control (I50) ranged from subnanomolar (CGA 325′615) to nanomolar (AE F150944, flupoxam, triazofenamide and oxaziclomefone) and micromolar (dichlobenil, quinclorac and compound 1) concentrations. In order to gain a better understanding of the effect of the putative inhibitors on cell wall polysaccharides biosynthesis, the [14C]glucose incorporation into cell wall fractions was determined after a 20 h exposure of cell suspensions to each inhibitor at their I50 value. All the inhibitors tested decreased glucose incorporation into cellulose with the exception of quinclorac, which increased it. In some herbicide treatments, reduction in the incorporation into cellulose was accompanied by an increase in the incorporation into other fractions. In order to appreciate the effect of the inhibitors on cell wall partitioning, a cluster and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on the relative contribution of [14C]glucose incorporation into the different cell wall fractions were performed, and three groups of compounds were identified. The first group included quinclorac, which increased glucose incorporation into cellulose; the second group consisted of compound 1, CGA 325′615, oxaziclomefone and AE F150944, which decreased the relative glucose incorporation into cellulose but increased it into tightly-bound cellulose fractions; and the third group, comprising flupoxam, triazofenamide and dichlobenil, decreased the relative glucose incorporation into cellulose and increased it into a pectin rich fraction.
Keywords: AE F150944; cell wall; cell cultures; cellulose biosynthesis-inhibitor (CBI) herbicides; CGA 325′615; compound 1; dichlobenil; Phaseolus vulgaris L.; quinclorac; triazofenamide
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García-Angulo, P.; Alonso-Simón, A.; Encina, A.; Álvarez, J.M.; Acebes, J.L. Cellulose Biosynthesis Inhibitors: Comparative Effect on Bean Cell Cultures. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3685-3702.
García-Angulo P, Alonso-Simón A, Encina A, Álvarez JM, Acebes JL. Cellulose Biosynthesis Inhibitors: Comparative Effect on Bean Cell Cultures. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3685-3702.
García-Angulo, Penélope; Alonso-Simón, Ana; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M.; Acebes, José L. 2012. "Cellulose Biosynthesis Inhibitors: Comparative Effect on Bean Cell Cultures." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3685-3702.