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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3492-3510; doi:10.3390/ijms13033492
Article

Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

1,†
, 1,†
 and 1,2,*
Received: 9 January 2012; in revised form: 8 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.
Keywords: Vitis; skin; phenolic content; phenolic compositon; principal component analysis Vitis; skin; phenolic content; phenolic compositon; principal component analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, L.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, J. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3492-3510.

AMA Style

Zhu L, Zhang Y, Lu J. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3492-3510.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang. 2012. "Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3492-3510.



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