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Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations
College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, FL 32317, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2012; in revised form: 8 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Abstract: In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.
Keywords: Vitis; skin; phenolic content; phenolic compositon; principal component analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhu, L.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, J. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3492-3510.
Zhu L, Zhang Y, Lu J. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3492-3510.
Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang. 2012. "Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3492-3510.