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The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats
Institute of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Affiliated Hospital, Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao Shandong 266003, China
School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong 266071, China
Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 November 2011; in revised form: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 8 February 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Abstract: Hypoglycemic effects and the use of kelp in diabetes mellitus (DM) model rats induced by alloxan were investigated. Sixty healthy male rats were used to establish DM models by injecting alloxan intraperitoneally. Kelp powder was added to the general forage for the rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) were determined by an automatic blood glucose device. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was applied to determine the serum levels of insulin. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by thiobarbituric acid assay and nitric oxide (NO) by nitrate reductase assay. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined by xanthinoxidase assay and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by chemical colorimetry. The shape and structure of islet cells were observed with Hematine-Eosin staining, and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in islet cells were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The results showed that the serum levels of insulin after treatment with kelp powder increased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group, while the FBG in the medium-high dose treated groups decreased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05). The levels of MDA and NO in the kelp powder groups were lower than those in the DM-model group, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those in the DM-model group, of which a significant difference existed between the medium-high dose treated groups and the DM-model group (P < 0.05). The shape and structure of islet cells improved with the up-expressing SOD and down-expressing iNOS in the medium-high dose treated groups compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the medium and high dose treated groups, all above indexes (P > 0.05). It is suggested that kelp might aid recovery of the the islet cell secreting function and reduce the level of FBG by an antioxidant effect.
Keywords: kelp; diabetes mellitus; alloxan; oxidative stress; rats
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Long, S.-H.; Yu, Z.-Q.; Shuai, L.; Guo, Y.-L.; Duan, D.-L.; Xu, X.-Y.; Li, X.-D. The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3354-3365.
Long S-H, Yu Z-Q, Shuai L, Guo Y-L, Duan D-L, Xu X-Y, Li X-D. The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3354-3365.
Long, Shao-Hua; Yu, Zhu-Qin; Shuai, Li; Guo, Yun-Liang; Duan, De-Lin; Xu, Xin-Ying; Li, Xiao-Dan. 2012. "The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3354-3365.