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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 15447-15463; doi:10.3390/ijms131115447
Review

Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid (22:6) Incorporates into Cardiolipin at the Expense of Linoleic Acid (18:2): Analysis and Potential Implications

*  and
Metabolic Research Centre (in IHMRI), School of Health Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2012 / Revised: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
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Abstract

Cardiolipin is a signature phospholipid of major functional significance in mitochondria. In heart mitochondria the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin is commonly viewed as highly regulated due to its high levels of linoleic acid (18:2n − 6) and the dominant presence of a 4×18:2 molecular species. However, analysis of data from a comprehensive compilation of studies reporting changes in fatty acid composition of cardiolipin in heart and liver mitochondria in response to dietary fat shows that, in heart the accrual of 18:2 into cardiolipin conforms strongly to its dietary availability at up to 20% of total dietary fatty acid and thereafter is regulated. In liver, no dietary conformer trend is apparent for 18:2 with regulated lower levels across the dietary range for 18:2. When 18:2 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n − 3) are present in the same diet, 22:6 is incorporated into cardiolipin of heart and liver at the expense of 18:2 when 22:6 is up to ~20% and 10% of total dietary fatty acid respectively. Changes in fatty acid composition in response to dietary fat are also compared for the two other main mitochondrial phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the potential consequences of replacement of 18:2 with 22:6 in cardiolipin are discussed.
Keywords: phospholipids; fatty acids; mitochondria; peroxidation; apoptosis; cancer; tumor phospholipids; fatty acids; mitochondria; peroxidation; apoptosis; cancer; tumor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Cortie, C.H.; Else, P.L. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid (22:6) Incorporates into Cardiolipin at the Expense of Linoleic Acid (18:2): Analysis and Potential Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15447-15463.

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