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Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities
Aker BioMarine ASA, Fjordalléen 16, NO-0115 Oslo, Norway
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2012; in revised form: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Abstract: The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs) versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs). New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs.
Keywords: phospholipid; krill oil; phosphatidylcholine; fish oil; triglyceride
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MDPI and ACS Style
Burri, L.; Hoem, N.; Banni, S.; Berge, K. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15401-15419.
Burri L, Hoem N, Banni S, Berge K. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):15401-15419.
Burri, Lena; Hoem, Nils; Banni, Sebastiano; Berge, Kjetil. 2012. "Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 15401-15419.