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Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction
Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001, India
Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2012; in revised form: 14 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 12 October 2012
Abstract: The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a major pest responsible for immense loss in rice productivity. Currently, very little knowledge exists with regard to this insect at the molecular level. The present study was initiated with the aim of developing molecular resources as well as identifying alterations at the transcriptome level in the gall midge maggots that are in a compatible (SH) or in an incompatible interaction (RH) with their rice host. Roche 454 pyrosequencing strategy was used to develop both transcriptomics and genomics resources that led to the identification of 79,028 and 85,395 EST sequences from gall midge biotype 4 (GMB4) maggots feeding on a susceptible and resistant rice variety, TN1 (SH) and Suraksha (RH), respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the maggots in SH and RH revealed over-representation of transcripts from proteolysis and protein phosphorylation in maggots from RH. In contrast, over-representation of transcripts for translation, regulation of transcription and transcripts involved in electron transport chain were observed in maggots from SH. This investigation, besides unveiling various mechanisms underlying insect-plant interactions, will also lead to a better understanding of strategies adopted by insects in general, and the Asian rice gall midge in particular, to overcome host defense.
Keywords: Orseolia oryzae; susceptible host; resistant host; next generation sequencing (NGS); real time PCR; insect biotypes; insect-plant interaction
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Sinha, D.K.; Nagaraju, J.; Tomar, A.; Bentur, J.S.; Nair, S. Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 13079-13103.
Sinha DK, Nagaraju J, Tomar A, Bentur JS, Nair S. Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):13079-13103.
Sinha, Deepak K.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Tomar, Archana; Bentur, Jagadish S.; Nair, Suresh. 2012. "Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 13079-13103.