Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 13049-13064; doi:10.3390/ijms131013049
Article

Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 3 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 4 Centre for Drug Delivery Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 5 Quality Use of Medicines Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2012; in revised form: 26 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 11 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
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Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to investigate the influence of the main emulsion composition; mixture of palm and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil (6%–12% w/w), lecithin (1%–3% w/w), and Cremophor EL (0.5%–1.5% w/w) as well as the preparation method; addition rate (2–20 mL/min), on the physicochemical properties of palm-based nanoemulsions. The response variables were the three main emulsion properties; particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. Optimization of the four independent variables was carried out to obtain an optimum level palm-based nanoemulsion with desirable characteristics. The response surface analysis showed that the variation in the three responses could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main composition of the emulsion and the preparation method. The experimental data could be fitted sufficiently well into a second-order polynomial model. The optimized formulation was stable for six months at 4 °C.
Keywords: palm oil; nanoemulsions; levodopa; Response Surface Methodology; central composite design

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zainol, S.; Basri, M.; Basri, H.B.; Shamsuddin, A.F.; Abdul-Gani, S.S.; Karjiban, R.A.; Abdul-Malek, E. Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 13049-13064.

AMA Style

Zainol S, Basri M, Basri HB, Shamsuddin AF, Abdul-Gani SS, Karjiban RA, Abdul-Malek E. Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):13049-13064.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zainol, Syafinaz; Basri, Mahiran; Basri, Hamidon Bin; Shamsuddin, Ahmad Fuad; Abdul-Gani, Siti Salwa; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Abdul-Malek, Emilia. 2012. "Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 13049-13064.

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