Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 13049-13064; doi:10.3390/ijms131013049
Article

Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa

Received: 2 August 2012; in revised form: 26 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 11 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to investigate the influence of the main emulsion composition; mixture of palm and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil (6%–12% w/w), lecithin (1%–3% w/w), and Cremophor EL (0.5%–1.5% w/w) as well as the preparation method; addition rate (2–20 mL/min), on the physicochemical properties of palm-based nanoemulsions. The response variables were the three main emulsion properties; particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. Optimization of the four independent variables was carried out to obtain an optimum level palm-based nanoemulsion with desirable characteristics. The response surface analysis showed that the variation in the three responses could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main composition of the emulsion and the preparation method. The experimental data could be fitted sufficiently well into a second-order polynomial model. The optimized formulation was stable for six months at 4 °C.
Keywords: palm oil; nanoemulsions; levodopa; Response Surface Methodology; central composite design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zainol, S.; Basri, M.; Basri, H.B.; Shamsuddin, A.F.; Abdul-Gani, S.S.; Karjiban, R.A.; Abdul-Malek, E. Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 13049-13064.

AMA Style

Zainol S, Basri M, Basri HB, Shamsuddin AF, Abdul-Gani SS, Karjiban RA, Abdul-Malek E. Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):13049-13064.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zainol, Syafinaz; Basri, Mahiran; Basri, Hamidon Bin; Shamsuddin, Ahmad Fuad; Abdul-Gani, Siti Salwa; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Abdul-Malek, Emilia. 2012. "Formulation Optimization of a Palm-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Levodopa." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 13049-13064.

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