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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12952-12969; doi:10.3390/ijms131012952
Article

Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

1
, 2
, 1
 and 1,2,*
Received: 31 May 2012; in revised form: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 September 2012 / Published: 10 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.
Keywords: antioxidants; diabetes; electron spin resonance; germinated brown rice; white rice; nutrigenomics antioxidants; diabetes; electron spin resonance; germinated brown rice; white rice; nutrigenomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Imam, M.U.; Musa, S.N.A.; Azmi, N.H.; Ismail, M. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 12952-12969.

AMA Style

Imam MU, Musa SNA, Azmi NH, Ismail M. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):12952-12969.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah. 2012. "Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 12952-12969.



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