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Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2012; in revised form: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 September 2012 / Published: 10 October 2012
Abstract: Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.
Keywords: antioxidants; diabetes; electron spin resonance; germinated brown rice; white rice; nutrigenomics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Imam, M.U.; Musa, S.N.A.; Azmi, N.H.; Ismail, M. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 12952-12969.
Imam MU, Musa SNA, Azmi NH, Ismail M. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):12952-12969.
Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah. 2012. "Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 12952-12969.