Next Article in Journal
Molecular Pathogenesis of Neuromyelitis Optica
Previous Article in Journal
Erythropoietin Modulates Autophagy Signaling in the Developing Rat Brain in an In Vivo Model of Oxygen-Toxicity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12952-12969; doi:10.3390/ijms131012952

Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

1
Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 September 2012 / Published: 10 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [440 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; diabetes; electron spin resonance; germinated brown rice; white rice; nutrigenomics antioxidants; diabetes; electron spin resonance; germinated brown rice; white rice; nutrigenomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Imam, M.U.; Musa, S.N.A.; Azmi, N.H.; Ismail, M. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 12952-12969.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top