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Interferon-β1b Increases Th2 Response in Neuromyelitis Optica
Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine I, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan
Department of Central Laboratory, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2012; in revised form: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 20 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
Abstract: A Japanese randomized controlled study showed that Interferon â (IFN-â1b) therapy is clinically effective in decreasing the frequency of attacks in multiple sclerosis (MS), even in optico-spinal MS (OSMS). However, recent studies have shown that IFN-â (IFN-â1a/IFN-â1b) treatment was not effective in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients and that the diminished benefit of IFN-â treatment in NMO may be due to different immune responses to IFN-â. We determined longitudinally the expression of CCR5, CXCR3 and CCR4 on CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in the blood from patients with NMO and MS treated with IFN-â1b. During a 12-month period of IFN-â1b therapy, the annualized relapse rate decreased in MS patients but not in NMO patients. There was no significant difference in the expression of the chemokine receptors between NMO and MS at baseline. The percentages of CD4+CCR5+ and CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, representative of the Th1 response, were decreased in both NMO and MS after treatment. The percentage of CD4+CCR4+ T cells, representative of the Th2 response, was decreased in MS, but those for NMO was significantly increased compared with the pretreatment levels. Our results indicate that IFN-â1b-induced up-modulation of the Th2 response in NMO patients may be the source of differences in the therapeutic response to IFN-â1b therapy. In the present study, Th2 predominance is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO.
Keywords: neuromyelitis optica; multiple sclerosis; IFN-â1b; chemokine receptor; CCR5; CXCR3; CCR4; Th1; Th2
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Nakajima, H.; Hosokawa, T.; Doi, Y.; Ikemoto, T.; Ishida, S.; Kimura, F.; Hanafusa, T. Interferon-β1b Increases Th2 Response in Neuromyelitis Optica. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 12213-12223.
Nakajima H, Hosokawa T, Doi Y, Ikemoto T, Ishida S, Kimura F, Hanafusa T. Interferon-β1b Increases Th2 Response in Neuromyelitis Optica. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):12213-12223.
Nakajima, Hideto; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Doi, Yoshimitu; Ikemoto, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki. 2012. "Interferon-β1b Increases Th2 Response in Neuromyelitis Optica." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 12213-12223.