Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis: A Review with a Focus on Molecular Mechanisms
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling disease of the central nervous system commonly affecting young adults. Pathologically, there are patches of inflammation (plaques) with demyelination of axons and oligodendrocyte loss. There is a global latitude gradient in MS prevalence, and incidence of MS is increasing (particularly in females). These changes suggest a major role for environmental factors in causation of disease. We have reviewed the evidence and potential mechanisms of action for three exposures: vitamin D, Epstein Barr virus and cigarette smoking. Recent advances supporting gene-environment interactions are reviewed. Further research is needed to establish mechanisms of causality in humans and to explore preventative strategies.
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O’Gorman, C.; Lucas, R.; Taylor, B. Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis: A Review with a Focus on Molecular Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11718-11752.
O’Gorman C, Lucas R, Taylor B. Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis: A Review with a Focus on Molecular Mechanisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11718-11752.Chicago/Turabian Style
O’Gorman, Cullen; Lucas, Robyn; Taylor, Bruce. 2012. "Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis: A Review with a Focus on Molecular Mechanisms." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11718-11752.