Next Article in Journal
Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Next Article in Special Issue
Interferon-β1b Increases Th2 Response in Neuromyelitis Optica
Previous Article in Journal
Mechanisms of Ovarian Cancer Metastasis: Biochemical Pathways
Previous Article in Special Issue
Prenatal Vitamin D Deficiency Induces an Early and More Severe Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in the Second Generation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11718-11752; doi:10.3390/ijms130911718
Review

Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis: A Review with a Focus on Molecular Mechanisms

1,* , 2
 and
3
1 School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland 4222, Australia 2 National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, the Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia 3 Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Research of Multiple Sclerosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [297 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
SciFeed

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling disease of the central nervous system commonly affecting young adults. Pathologically, there are patches of inflammation (plaques) with demyelination of axons and oligodendrocyte loss. There is a global latitude gradient in MS prevalence, and incidence of MS is increasing (particularly in females). These changes suggest a major role for environmental factors in causation of disease. We have reviewed the evidence and potential mechanisms of action for three exposures: vitamin D, Epstein Barr virus and cigarette smoking. Recent advances supporting gene-environment interactions are reviewed. Further research is needed to establish mechanisms of causality in humans and to explore preventative strategies.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; demyelination; epidemiology; latitude; vitamin D; Epstein-Barr virus; smoking; gene-environment interaction multiple sclerosis; demyelination; epidemiology; latitude; vitamin D; Epstein-Barr virus; smoking; gene-environment interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

O’Gorman, C.; Lucas, R.; Taylor, B. Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis: A Review with a Focus on Molecular Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11718-11752.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert