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Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
National Agrobiotechnology Institute, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2011; in revised form: 19 June 2011 / Accepted: 30 June 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Abstract: The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.
Keywords: drying process; fruits antioxidants; bioactive compounds; ascorbic acid; HPLC; antioxidant attributes
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MDPI and ACS Style
Shofian, N.M.; Hamid, A.A.; Osman, A.; Saari, N.; Anwar, F.; Pak Dek, M.S.; Hairuddin, M.R. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 4678-4692.
Shofian NM, Hamid AA, Osman A, Saari N, Anwar F, Pak Dek MS, Hairuddin MR. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(7):4678-4692.
Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan. 2011. "Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 7: 4678-4692.