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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(5), 3072-3084; doi:10.3390/ijms12053072
Review

Antioxidant Properties of Aminoethylcysteine Ketimine Decarboxylated Dimer: A Review

1
, 1
, 2
, 2
, 3
, 2
, 2
, 1
 and 1,*
1 Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza, University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy 2 Department of Chemistry and Technology of Drugs Sapienza, University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy 3 National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition Via Ardeatina, 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2011 / Revised: 25 April 2011 / Accepted: 29 April 2011 / Published: 12 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
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Abstract

Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is a natural sulfur-containing compound detected in human plasma and urine, in mammalian brain and in many common edible vegetables. Over the past decade many studies have been undertaken to identify its metabolic role. Attention has been focused on its antioxidant properties and on its reactivity against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species. These properties have been studied in different model systems starting from plasma lipoproteins to specific cellular lines. All these studies report that aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is able to interact both with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite and its derivatives). Its antioxidant activity is similar to that of Vitamin E while higher than other hydrophilic antioxidants, such as trolox and N-acetylcysteine.
Keywords: sulfur-containing antioxidants; aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species sulfur-containing antioxidants; aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Macone, A.; Fontana, M.; Barba, M.; Botta, B.; Nardini, M.; Ghirga, F.; Calcaterra, A.; Pecci, L.; Matarese, R.M. Antioxidant Properties of Aminoethylcysteine Ketimine Decarboxylated Dimer: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 3072-3084.

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