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Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction
University of Avignon and Countries of Vaucluse, INRA, UMR408, F-84000 Avignon, France
CEA DEN Marcoule, Laboratory of Supercritical fluids and membranes, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2011; in revised form: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 December 2011 / Published: 13 December 2011
Abstract: Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged.
Keywords: microalgae; supercritical carbon dioxide; microwave; GC/MS; lipid extraction
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Dejoye, C.; Vian, M.A.; Lumia, G.; Bouscarle, C.; Charton, F.; Chemat, F. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 9332-9341.
Dejoye C, Vian MA, Lumia G, Bouscarle C, Charton F, Chemat F. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(12):9332-9341.
Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid. 2011. "Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 12: 9332-9341.