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New Approaches to Clarify Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Vernonia condensata Leaves
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330, Brazil
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2011; in revised form: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 23 November 2011 / Published: 7 December 2011
Abstract: The present study was aimed at evaluating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract from Vernonia condensata leaves in animal models, in order to afford a better understanding of these properties. The extract reduced the number of abdominal contortions at doses of 100 (51.00 ± 3.00), 200 (42.00 ± 2.98) and 400 mg/kg (39.00 ± 4.00). In formalin tests, a significant reduction in the licking time (p < 0.01) was observed in the first phase by 25.14 (200 mg/kg = 51.50 ± 4.44) and 31.15% (400 mg/kg = 48.00 ± 4.37). The doses of 100 (43.37 ± 5.15), 200 (34.62 ± 4.16) and 400 mg/kg (28.37 ± 3.98) inhibited (p < 0.001) the second phase. After 60 and 90 min of treatment, a dose of 400 mg/kg (10.13 ± 0.39 and 11.14 ± 1.33, respectively) increased the latency time. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg potentiated the sleeping time induced by diazepam, pentobarbital and meprobamate. The extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effects by a decrease in paw edema. The extracts also reduced the exudate volume at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. The leukocyte migration had significant effect (p < 0.001) at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. The completion of additional experiments in the investigation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of V. condensata allowed a better understanding of the central and peripheral mechanisms involved.
Keywords: Vernonia condensata; antinociceptive activity; sedative effect; anti-inflammatory activity
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da Silva, J.B.; Temponi, V.S.; Fernandes, F.V.; Alves, G.A.D.; Matos, D.M.; Gasparetto, C.M.; Ribeiro, A.; de Pinho, J.J.R.G.; Alves, M.S.; de Sousa, O.V. New Approaches to Clarify Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Vernonia condensata Leaves. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8993-9008.
da Silva JB, Temponi VS, Fernandes FV, Alves GAD, Matos DM, Gasparetto CM, Ribeiro A, de Pinho JJRG, Alves MS, de Sousa OV. New Approaches to Clarify Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Vernonia condensata Leaves. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(12):8993-9008.
da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Fernandes, Felipe Valente; Alves, Geórgia de Assis Dias; Matos, Dalyara Mendonça de; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Ribeiro, Antônia; de Pinho, José de Jesus R. G.; Alves, Maria Silvana; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira. 2011. "New Approaches to Clarify Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Vernonia condensata Leaves." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 12: 8993-9008.