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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(12), 8993-9008; doi:10.3390/ijms12128993
Article

New Approaches to Clarify Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Vernonia condensata Leaves

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1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330, Brazil 2 Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2011 / Revised: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 23 November 2011 / Published: 7 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

The present study was aimed at evaluating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract from Vernonia condensata leaves in animal models, in order to afford a better understanding of these properties. The extract reduced the number of abdominal contortions at doses of 100 (51.00 ± 3.00), 200 (42.00 ± 2.98) and 400 mg/kg (39.00 ± 4.00). In formalin tests, a significant reduction in the licking time (p < 0.01) was observed in the first phase by 25.14 (200 mg/kg = 51.50 ± 4.44) and 31.15% (400 mg/kg = 48.00 ± 4.37). The doses of 100 (43.37 ± 5.15), 200 (34.62 ± 4.16) and 400 mg/kg (28.37 ± 3.98) inhibited (p < 0.001) the second phase. After 60 and 90 min of treatment, a dose of 400 mg/kg (10.13 ± 0.39 and 11.14 ± 1.33, respectively) increased the latency time. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg potentiated the sleeping time induced by diazepam, pentobarbital and meprobamate. The extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effects by a decrease in paw edema. The extracts also reduced the exudate volume at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. The leukocyte migration had significant effect (p < 0.001) at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. The completion of additional experiments in the investigation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of V. condensata allowed a better understanding of the central and peripheral mechanisms involved.
Keywords: Vernonia condensata; antinociceptive activity; sedative effect; anti-inflammatory activity Vernonia condensata; antinociceptive activity; sedative effect; anti-inflammatory activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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da Silva, J.B.; Temponi, V.S.; Fernandes, F.V.; Alves, G.A.D.; Matos, D.M.; Gasparetto, C.M.; Ribeiro, A.; de Pinho, J.J.R.G.; Alves, M.S.; de Sousa, O.V. New Approaches to Clarify Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Vernonia condensata Leaves. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8993-9008.

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