Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7960-7970; doi:10.3390/ijms12117960
Review

Are Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Useful in Predicting the Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis Patients?

1 Section of Clinical Neurology, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, University of Verona, Verona 37129, Italy 2 Section of Neuropathology and The Brain Bank at the University of Verona, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, University of Verona, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, Verona 37134, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2011; in revised form: 11 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
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Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypical inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Although many advances have been made in the comprehension of its pathogenesis, the etiology is still unknown. The complexity of MS reflects in the extreme variability of the clinical manifestations and clinical course both between and within patients, in addition to immunopathological mechanisms and response to treatment. Several prognostic factors have been suggested in large scale studies, but predictions in individual cases are difficult to make. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as 14-3-3, tau, and cystatin C are promising sources of prognostic information with a good potential of quantitative measure, sensitivity, and reliability. However, none has shown sufficient reproducibility to be applied in clinical practice. Here we review the current literature addressing the above mentioned biomarkers as MS severity predictors at an early stage.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; biomarkers; cystatin C; 14-3-3 protein; tau protein

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gajofatto, A.; Bongianni, M.; Zanusso, G.; Benedetti, M.D.; Monaco, S. Are Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Useful in Predicting the Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7960-7970.

AMA Style

Gajofatto A, Bongianni M, Zanusso G, Benedetti MD, Monaco S. Are Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Useful in Predicting the Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(11):7960-7970.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gajofatto, Alberto; Bongianni, Matilde; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Monaco, Salvatore. 2011. "Are Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Useful in Predicting the Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis Patients?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 7960-7970.

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